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CBSE (UGC)-NET Communication Technology Study Material

CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Communication and Technology: Hindrances to Communication
Hindrances to Communication :
The hindrances in a communication process also takes place if the sender and receiver are not on the same “wavelength” It is consider when we talk about human communication as it is in radio transmission. In the terms of ‘jargon’ of communication, all hindrances whatever their nature are combined in a general label known as ‘noise’ it not only consists atmospheric or channel disturbance, but also cover all those hindrances that somehow degrade the essense of a communication process.

  • Physical hindrances: There are majorily four core types of hindrances which are called as ‘physical hindrances’ in the communication process. These are stated below:
  • The Competing Stimulus in the type of another conversation going on within hearing distance or loud music or traffic noise in the background.
  • Environmental Stress: It consists high temperature and humidity, poor ventilation, vibrations felt, a strong glare, there all have the capacity to create distortions while sending and receiving messages or information.
  • Subjective Stress: It consists Sleeplessness, ill health, the effects of drugs and mood fluctuations may give birth to around subjective 35 stress that in turn cause major difficulties in listening and interpretation.
  • Ignorance of the Medium: The various different media used for the communication are: Oral, written, audio, visual and audio-visual. The use of a medium with which the receiver is not aware, In such case the medium become a hindrance.
  • Psychological hindrances: Every person has certain ‘frame of reference’ it acts as a window with the help of which we look out at the world, at people and events and situations. A frame of reference is a systeM’which deals with standards and values, generally implicit, underlying and to some extent controlling aI! action, or the expression of arty belief, attitude or idea. No two individuals possess exactly similar frames of reference, even if they are identical twins. Upto a great extent our experiences, specially our childhood experiences and the cultural environment in which we have grown up, all have certain impacts on our frames of reference.
  • Linguistics and Cultural hindrances: With the help of language we express our thoughts and experiences to other people in terms of their cultural environment. When the same language is made use of in a different culture, it takes an another colour, another meaning. Mechanical hindrances: Mechanical hindrances are those raised by the channels employed for interpersonal, group or mass communication. Channels become hindrance when the message is interfered with by some disturbance, which accelerates difficulty in reception or prevented some elements of the message reaching its destination or both.
  • In case of lack of such communication facilities would cause mechanical hindrance. Such type of hindrance consists any disturbance, which interferes with the fidelity of the physical transmission of the written, intentional-unintentional and so on. One of the most general typology relates 0 the size of the social group or the number of people who shares the experience of communication. Such a typology ranges from the intrapersonal. Interpersonal and transpersonal to the group.

Information and Communication Technology: Communication Barriers & forms
Communication Barriers
Ineffective communication may cause errors, misunderstanding, poor performance, lower motivation and morale, negative atmosphere in the environment of the workplace and various other matters, that may detract from achieving organisational goals. It is very crucial to minimise and lower down the barriers to achieve effective communication: Communication barriers degrade or interrupt the message as well as the meaning.
Organizational Communication
Organizational communication is majorily done to influence, inform, control or inspire. Organisational communication is categorised into two broad systems of communication-formal or structured i.e.. Within the ‘systems’ established by management and another one is informal i.e.. When co-workers discuss regarding the company matters. Both the areas are very remarkable and both must be ‘healthy’ to ensure a healthy growth of an organisation.
Formal Communication Channels and Networks
Formal communication channels follow the organisational structure or hierarchy and flow in four directions:
The four forms of directions in which communication can travel are as follows: Downward; upward; lateral or horizontal and diagonal.

1) : Downward communication is a form of communication which flows from the higher levels of management to the lower levels, In this basically company’s goals, strategies or role expectations are communicated by the managers.
2) : Upward communication is a form of communication which flows from the lower levels of management to the higher levels in the organisation, for example generally it comprises communication regarding grievances, problems, results, suggestions or feedback.
3) : Horizontal communication is a form of communication which flows across the same level in an organisation, for example integration of activities with peers (teams, committees), dissemination of vital information from one department to another. It comprises sales forecasts from the sales department to production and problems such as a problem with product design from the production department to research and development. Horizontal communication provides a great ease in the interaction process in various areas of expertise and also induce innovation.
4) : Diagonal channels have the potential to create disputes as they comprise communication between the lower level of one department to a higher level in another. In the diagram above, this may cause friction between the employee in accounting department C and the Vice-President (VP) of Accounting as the employee has gone around his or her own superior. This form of communication may be useful as it simplify the desirable information and reaches to the Marketing Department and the VP Accounting does not need to be engaged in the whole process.

Formal communication is a communication which takes place within the hierarchy of the organisation and shows how groups of employees, for example those in a department, work together. Networking or mapping the flow of communication in an organisation can be a helpful device. Basically, fomal structure follows scalar chain. It can become easy to identify who is communicating with whom and whether the lines of communication are effective or whether there is a destructive conflict or tension arising from the communication channels, for example inappropriate diagonal communication.

Formal Communication: Problems and Solutions
Various communication problems arise because of the organisational framework. Dwyer stated three related organisational factors: Centralisation; the creation of too many organisational layers; and the structure of the organisation. Other factors may comprise downsizing which leads to ambiguous reporting structure and poor leadership. Many of these problems may be overcome by: Analysing the organisation structure and communication networks for barriers to effectiveness and efficiency ensuring downsizing is well planned and the ‘survivors’ i.e.. Those left in the organisation know the influence of the process on communication networks and procedures recruiting for competent communication, specially when recruiting for leadership roles.
Informal Communication
Informal communication is a part of an organisation and its inevitable, It exists outside the formal horizons of the organisational framework. A very common example is friendship groups. The informal communication fulfills majorily two core objectives: It allows employees to satisfy their desire for social interaction in the workplace and it can enhance an organisation’s task and work by creating alternative and a faster and more effective, channels of communication (Robbins et al. 2000).

Grapewine communication is one of the very common form of informal communication, Kreitner and Kinicki in the year 1995 defined the term grapevine is originated from the American Civil War practice of stringing battlefield telegraph lines between trees as a means of effective communication. Now a days in an organisation it complements the formal communication.

CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Communication and Technology: Elements of Communication
Communication Elements
1) : The sender initiate the communication process with having an idea in his or her mind and begins the communication process by forming intentions and feelings that need be transferred. The sender is required to filter out the details that are uilcrucial and focus his or her energy on the most desirable information. The source or encoder makes the decision to integrate. The source also determines what the purpose of the message will be to inform, persuade or entertain. The communication process starts from the source. First, the source must encode or form a message. The information that the source wants to send must be put into a form that can be sent to the receiver.
2) : Message: The second most crucial element of the communication process is the message or the overall information which is being communicated. The source encodes an idea and then determines whether or not to inform, persuade, or entertain. After deciding what message to send, the source uses symbols to get the message across to others. These symbols stand for other things. The most crucial symbols are words, which can represent objects, ideas, and feelings. These words permit us to share our thoughts with other members of our species. To increase the likelihood of successful communication, the source must try to encode in a way that the receiver understands, so that the receiver can properly decode or interpret the message.
3) : Channel: Channels are the means namely pathways or devices by which messages are communicated. Channels may be described and analyzed in two different ways. The first involves the form in which messages are sent to receivers. Forms comprise both verbal and nonverbal channels of communication. We use our five senses to receive messages from others. Channels can be defined as the manner of presentation employed in communication. Depending on the situation, the source would focus on verbal and non verbal channels of communication. If the speaker is not in front of the audience his or her physical appearance wouldn’t matter, but if he or she is giving lectures in a classroom or before a live audience, personal appearance could easily influence the reception of the message. Whatever channels of communication are used, the source must learn to adapt the message to make use of the most appropriate channels available for the situation.
4) : Receiver or Decoder: The person who receive the message is known as the receiver. The act of interpreting messages is known as decoding. Receivers decode messages based on past experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings. We first have a physiological reception of stimuli i.e.. a noise causes sound waves to hit our eardrum or a movement catches our eye. We must focus on both the verbal and non-verbal stimuli and reduce all the stimuli bombarding us to one or two we can cope with more easily. We must try to understand the stimuli and interpret them into messages i.e.. We decide that the noise is a telephone bell or that the movement is a friend waving to us around campus. At last, we store this information for later use so that next time we will be able to respond to the stimuli often more quickly. It is crucial to keep in mind that receivers make quick decisions about what they will respond to in a particular situation.
5) : Feedback: Feedback is also known as a reply or a revert is the most vital element of the entire communication process. Each party in an interaction continuously sends messages back to the other. This return process is known as feedback. Feedback shows the source how the receiver has interpreted each message: The feedback, which delivers lack of understanding is known as negative feedback. ‘Positive feedback, on the other hand, indicates that the receiver has understood the source’s message. It not all the times mean that he or she agrees with the source, just that the message was interpreted accurately. Feedback can also be ambiguous, not clearly positive or negative.’ See “and” mm-hmm” can be examples of ambiguous feedback i.e.. Confusion. The effective communicator is always sensitive to feedback and frequently changes his or her messages as per the feedback received.
6) : hindrances or Noise: The human communication system can be compared with a radio or telephone circuit. Just as in radio transmissions, where distortion can occur at any point along the channel, there can be similar hindrances in human communication. The source’s information may be unclear. Or the message can be ineffectively or inaccurately encoded. The wrong channel of communication may be used. The message may not be decoded the way it was encoded. At last, the receiver may not equipped to handle the decoded message in such a way as to produce the response or reply expected by the source. ‘hindrances’ are any obstacles or difficulties that come in the way of communication. They may be physical, mechanical, psychological, cultural or linguistic in nature. Also, then are the hindrances, raised by interpersonal relationships between individual and groups, the biasness of both individuals and groups and the channels they use to integrate or communicate.

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